Physician Profile

Saint Luke’s Care Member

Physician Profile

Michael L Main, MD



Medical School
University of Iowa - College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA
Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Med School, Dallas, TX
Cardiovascular Disease, University of Texas Southwestern Med Ctr, Dallas, TX
Advanced Cardiac Imaging, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH

Board Certifications

  • American Board of Internal Medicine - Subspecialty in Cardiovascular Disease

Academic Titles

  • Professor of Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine

Clinical Interests

  • clinical cardiology
  • echocardiography


Dr. Main is co-director of the Imaging Core Lab, professor of medicine at the University of Missouri–Kansas City School of Medicine, and a practicing cardiologist at Saint Luke’s Mid America Heart Institute. Dr. Main earned his medical degree at the University of Iowa College of Medicine. He completed his residency and fellowship at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and an advanced cardiac imaging fellowship at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation. 

Accepted Insurances

  • Aetna Choice POS II
  • Aetna Choice POS II Aexcel Local
  • Aetna Choice POS II Local
  • Aetna Elect Choice
  • Aetna Federal Employees Health Benefit Plan
  • Aetna HMO
  • Aetna HMO Local
  • Aetna Mail Handlers Benefit Plan
  • Aetna Managed Choice
  • Aetna MDOT & Missouri State Highway Patrol
  • Aetna Medicare
  • Aetna Missouri Preferred
  • Aetna MU myChoice Health Program
  • Aetna Open Choice PPO
  • Aetna Select
  • Aetna Select Local
  • Aetna Signature Administrators (ASA)
  • Aetna Workers Comp
  • BCBS of Kansas (call provider)
  • BCBS of Kansas City (PPO)
  • BCBS of Kansas City Freedom Network
  • BCBS of Kansas City Freedom Network Select
  • BCBS of Kansas City Preferred Care
  • BCBS of Kansas City Preferred Care Blue
  • BCBS of Kansas City Traditional
  • Beech Street (PPO)
  • Century Health Solutions (PPO)
  • Cigna (HMO)
  • Cigna (Open Access)
  • Cigna (PPO)
  • Cigna HealthSpring (HMO Medicare Advantage)
  • CompResults (WC)
  • Coventry Advantra Freedom (PPO)
  • Coventry Health and Life Insurance Company
  • Coventry Health Care
  • Coventry Medicare Advantra (PPO)
  • Golden Rule
  • Great West HealthCare (POS)
  • Great West HealthCare (PPO)
  • Great West HealthCare One Health Plan
  • Great West HealthCare One Health Plan/Gen AM
  • Health Choice of Northwest Missouri (PPO)
  • Healthcare USA-MC+ (Aetna Better Health)
  • HealthLink (HMO)
  • HealthLink (PPO) through Freedom Network
  • Home State Health Plan (Missouri practices)
  • Humana (PPOx)
  • Humana Choice Care (PPO)
  • Humana Choice PPO (Medicare Advantage PPO)
  • Humana Gold Choice Medicare Advantage PFFS
  • Humana Gold Plus (HMO)
  • Humana Gold Plus HMO SNP
  • Humana SmartExpress PPO
  • Humana SmartNet PPO
  • Humana SmartSuite PPO
  • HumanaOne
  • Integrated Health Plan
  • Kansas Medicaid
  • Medicare
  • Missouri Care (Missouri practices only)
  • Missouri Medicaid
  • MultiPlan/PCHS (PPO)
  • Occupational Health Management (WC)
  • OHARA Managed Care (WC)
  • ProviDRs Care Network (formerly WPPA)
  • Pyramid Life (Medicare Advantage PPO)
  • Railroad Medicare
  • Sunflower State Health Plan (Kansas practices)
  • Triwest Veterans Affairs Patient Centered Community Care
  • United Healthcare Choice
  • United Healthcare Choice Plus
  • United Healthcare Community Plan
  • United Healthcare Definity Health Reimbursement Account
  • United Healthcare Definity Health Savings Account
  • United Healthcare Golden Rule HMO
  • United Healthcare Indemnity
  • United Healthcare Managed Indemnity
  • United Healthcare Options PPO
  • United Healthcare Select
  • United Healthcare Select Plus
  • UnitedHealthcare Evercare DH
  • UnitedHealthcare Evercare DH-POS
  • UnitedHealthcare Evercare DP
  • UnitedHealthcare Evercare RDP
  • UnitedHealthcare Medicare Choice
  • UnitedHealthcare Medicare Choice Essential
  • UnitedHealthcare Medicare Complete
  • UnitedHealthcare Medicare Complete Essential
  • UnitedHealthcare Medicare Complete Plus
  • UnitedHealthcare Medicare DH
  • UnitedHealthcare Medicare Plus Essential
  • US Department of Labor



Peer Reviewed Scientific Papers
1. Afridi I, Main ML, Grayburn PA.  Accuracy of dobutamine echocardiography for detection of myocardial viability in patients with an occluded left anterior descending artery. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996; 28:455-459.
2. Main ML, Grayburn PA, Landau C, Afridi I. Relation of contractile reserve during low-dose dobutamine echocardiography and angiographic extent and severity of coronary artery disease in the presence of left ventricular dysfunction. Am J Cardiol 1997;79:1309-1313.
3. Main ML, Escobar JF, Hall SA, Grayburn PA. Safety and efficacy of QW7437, a new fluorocarbon based echocardiographic contrast agent. J Am Soc Echo 1997; 10:798-804.
4. Huskens J, Main M, Malloy CR, Sherry AD. The determination of magnesium in human blood plasma by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy using a macrolytic reported ligand. Biochim Biophys Acta 1997:1336:434-444.
5. Main ML, Escobar JF, Hall SA, Killam AL, Grayburn PA. Detection of myocardial perfusion defects by contrast echocardiography in the setting of acute myocardial ischemia with residual antegrade flow. J Am Soc Echo 1998;11:228-235.
6. Main ML, Ramaswamy K, Andrews TA. Cardiac arrest and myocardial infarction immediately after sumatriptan injection [letter]. Ann Internal Med 1998;128:874.
7. Afridi I, Main ML, Parrish DL, Kizilbash A, Levine BD, Grayburn PA. Usefulness of isometric hand grip exercise in detecting coronary artery disease during dobutamine atropine stress echocardiography in patients with either stable angina pectoris or another type of positive stress test. Am J Cardiol 1998;82:564-568.
8. Main ML, Asher CR, Rubin DN, Odabashian JA, Cardon LA, Thomas JD, Klein AL. Comparison of tissue harmonic imaging with contrast echocardiography (sonicated albumin) and Doppler myocardial imaging for enhancing endocardial border resolution. Am J Cardiol 1999; 83:218-222.
9. Garcia MJ, Smedira NG, Greenberg NL, Main ML, Firstenberg MS, Odabashian J, Thomas JD. Color M-mode Doppler flow propagation velocity is a preload insensitive index of left ventricular relaxation: animal and human validation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35:201-208.
10. Main ML, Foltz D, Firstenberg MS, Bobinsky, E, Bailey D, Frantz B, Pleva D, Baldizzi M, Meyers DP, Jones K, Spence MC, Freeman K, Morehead A, and Thomas JD. Real-time transmission of full-motion echocardiography over a high-speed data network: impact of data rate and network quality of service. J Am Soc Echo 2000;13:764-770.
11. Firstenberg MS, Greenberg NL, Main ML, Drinko JK, Odabashian JA, Thomas JD, Garcia MJ. Determinants of diastolic myocardial tissue Doppler velocities: influences of relaxation and preload. Appl Physiol 2001;90:299-307.
12. Main ML, Magalski A, Chee NK, Coen MM, Skolnick DG, and Good TH. Full-motion pulse inversion power Doppler contrast echocardiography differentiates stunning from necrosis and predicts recovery of left ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001; 38:1390-1394.
13. Greenberg NL, Firstenberg MS, Castro PL, Main ML, Travaglini A, Odabashian JA, Drinko JK, Rodriguez LL, Thomas JD, Garcia MJ. Doppler derived myocardial strain rate is a strong index of left ventricular contractility. Circulation 2002;105:99-105.
14. Main ML, Magalski A, Morris BA, Coen MM, Skolnick DG, and Good TH. Combined assessment of microvascular integrity and contractile reserve improves differentiation of stunning and necrosis after acute anterior wall myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002; 40:1079-1084.
15. Main ML, Magalski AM, Kusnetzky LL, Morris BA, Coen MM, Skolnick DG, Good TH. Real-time assessment of myocardial perfusion during balloon angioplasty of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Am J Cardiol 2003;92:656-659.
16. Main ML, Kusnetzky LL, Dillon D, Daniel WC. Reperfusion assessment using myocardial contrast echocardiography in patients with ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 2004;93:1401-1403.
17. Main ML, Magalski A, Kusnetzky LL, Morris BA, Jones PG. Usefulness of myocardial contrast echocardiography in predicting global left ventricular functional recovery after anterior wall acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 2004;94:340-342.
18. Main ML, Hannen, MN, Kusnetzky, LL, Martin JL, Coggins TR, Lanza P, Morris BA, Jones, PG. Myocardial contrast echocardiographic estimates of infarct size predict likelihood of left ventricular remodeling after acute anterior wall myocardial infarction. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2006;19:64-70.
19. Main ML, Ehlgen A, Coggins TR, Morris BA, Lanza P, Tremblay TM, Schiller NB, Goldman JH. Pulmonary hemodynamic effects of dipyridamole infusion in patients with normal and elevated pulmonary artery systolic pressure receiving PB127. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2006;19:1038-1044.
20. Khumri TM, Nayyar S, Main ML. Transesophageal echocardiographic diagnosis of aspergillus fumigatus aortitis following percutaneous coronary intervention. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2006;19:1072.e9-e11.
21. Nayyar S, Magalski A, Khumri TM, Idupulapati M, Stoner CN, Kusnetzky LL, Coggins TR, Morris BA, Main ML. Usefulness of contrast administration in reducing interobserver variability in determination of left ventricular ejection fraction in patients with left ventricular dysfunction and good baseline endocardial border delineation. Am J Cardiol 2006;98:1110-1114.
22. Khumri TM, Nayyar S, Idupulapati M, Magalski A, Stoner CN, Kusnetzky LL, Kosiborod M, Spertus J, Main ML. Myocardial contrast echocardiography predicts late mortality in patients with anterior wall myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 2006;98:1150-1155.
23. Khumri TM, Idupulapati M, Rader VJ, Nayyar S, Stoner CN, Main ML.
Clinical and echocardiographic markers of mortality risk in patients with atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol 2007;99:1733-1736.
24. Rader VJ, Khumri TM, Idupulapati M, Stoner CN, Magalski A, Main ML. Clinical predictors of left atrial thrombus and spontaneous echo contrast in patients with atrial fibrillation. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2007;10:1181-5.
25. Bajaj M, Abuissa H, Main ML. Rapid bioprosthetic valve degeneration  resulting in severe mitral stenosis. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2008;90:e1. 
26. Maron BJ, Maron MS, Lesser JR, Hauser RG, Haas TS, Harrigan CJ, Appelbaum E, Main ML, Roberts WC. Sudden cardiac arrest in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the absence of conventional criteria for high risk status. Am J Cardiol 2008;101:544-547. 
27. Rao SC, Main ML. Acute severe functional mitral regurgitation secondary to cocaine mediated anterior myocardial infarction. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2008;3:297.e3-4. 
28. Thibodeau JB, Pillarisetti J, Khumri TM, Jones PG, Main ML. Mortality rates and predictors of reduced survival following cardioverter defibrillator implantation. Am J Cardiol 2008;101:861-4.
29. Kusnetzky LL, Khalid A, Khumri TM, Moe TG, Jones PG, Main ML. Acute mortality in hospitalized patients undergoing echocardiography with and without an ultrasound contrast agent: results in 18,671 patients. J Am Cardiol Coll 2008;51:1704-6.
30. Khumri TM, Thibodeau JB, Main ML. Transesophageal echocardiographic diagnosis of left atrial appendage occluder device infection. Eur J Echocardiogr 2008;9:565-566. 
31. Magalski A, Maron BJ, Main ML, McCoy M, Florez A, Reid KJ, Epps B, Bates J, rowne JE. Relation of race to electrocardiographic patterns in elite American football players. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008;51:2250-2255. 
32. Main ML, Ryan AC, Davis TE, Albano MP, Kusnetzky LL, Hibberd M. Acute mortality in hospitalized patients undergoing echocardiography with and without an ultrasound contrast agent: multicenter results in 4,300,966 consecutive patients. Am J Cardiol 2008;102:1742-1746. 
33. Khumri TM, Reid KJ, Kosiborod M, Spertus J, Main ML. Usefulness of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction as a predictor of 1 year rehospitalization in survivors of acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 2009;103:17-21. 
34. Rao SC, Main ML. Transesophageal echocardiographic diagnosis of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation in a patient with ischemic stroke. Eur J Echocardiogr 2009;10:347-349. 
35. Senior R, Monaghan M, Main ML, Zamorano JL, Tiemann K, Agati L,Weissman NJ, Klein AL, Marwick TH, Ahmad M, DeMaria AN, Zabalgoitia M, Becher H, Kaul S, Udelson JH, Wackers FJ, Walovitch RC, Picard MH for the RAMP-1 and RAMP-2 Investigators. Detection of coronary artery disease with echocardiography and a novel ultrasound imaging agent. Eur J Echocardiogr 2009;10:26-35. 
36. Khumri TM, Walker BL, Magalski A, Morris BA, Coggins TR, Kusnetzky LL, House JA, Main ML.  Combined assessment of myocardial perfusion and diastolic function enhances risk stratification in patients with anterior wall myocardial infarction.  Echocardiography 2009;26:61-5.
37. Rao SC, Kusnetzky LL, Lan X, Main ML. Temporal obesity trends in patients undergoing transthoraic echocardiography 2002-2006. Am J Cardiol 2009;103:688-9. 
38. Rao GA, Sajnani NV, Kusnetzky LL, Main ML. Appropriate utilization of transesophageal echocardiography.  Am J Cardiol 2009;103:727-9. 
39. Vaidya OU, Dobson JR, Wible BC, Main ML. Usefulness of multimodality cardiac imaging in the diagnosis of a right atrial angiosarcoma. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2010; March 24 [Epub ahead of print] 
40. Main ML, Latus GG, Magalski A, Huber KC. Contrast enhanced transesophageal echocardiographic guidance of left atrial appendage closure device implantation. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2010; March 30 [Epub ahead of print]. 
41. Rao G, Sajnani N, Kusnetzky LL, Main ML. Appropriate utilization of transthoracic echocardiography. Am J Cardiol 2010;105:1640-42. 
42. Exuzides A, Main ML, Colby C, Grayburn PA, Feinstein SB, Goldman JH. A retrospective comparison of mortality in critically ill hospitalized patients undergoing echocardiography with and without Optison. J Am Coll Cardiol Img 2010;3:578-85 
43. Bull SC, Main ML, Stevens GR, Goldman JH, Constable SA, Becher H. Cardiac toxicity screening by echocardiography in healthy volunteers:  study of the effects of diurnal variation and use of a core laboratory on the reproducibility of left ventricular function measurement. Echocardiography 2011;28:502-7.
44. Magalski A, McCoy M, Zabel M, Magee LM, Goeke J, Main ML, Bunten L, Reid KJ, Ramza BM. Cardiovascular screening with electrocardiography and echocardiography in collegiate athletes. Am J Med 2011:124:511-8. 
45. Smith CR, Leon MB, Mack MJ, Miller DC, Moses JW, Svensson LG, Tuzcu EM, Webb JG, Fontana GP, Makkar RR, Williams M, Dewey T, Kapadia S, Babaliaros V, Thourani VH, Corso P, Pichard AD, Bavaria JE, Herrmann HC, Akin JJ, Anderson WN, Wang D, Pocock SJ; PARTNER trial investigators. Transcatheter versus surgical aortic-valve replacement in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med 2011:364;2187-98. 
46. Bhatti SK, Bybee KA, Khalid A, Magalski A, Main ML.  Transient apical ballooning and apical sparing variant stress cardiomyopathy in the same patient. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2012;13:201.
47. Wei K, Main ML, Lang R, Klein A, Angeli S, Panetta C, Mikati I, Lee LV, Ahmad M. The effect of Definity® on systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics in patients.  J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2012;25:584-8.
48. Moser AR, Hockman D, Magalski A, Main ML, Khumri TM, Austin BA. Apical pseudoaneurysm following continuous flow left ventricular assist device placement.  Circulation: Heart Failure 2012;5:e53-e54.
49. Patil HR, Coggins TR, Kusnetzky LL, Main ML. Appropriate use of transthoracic echocardiography: a prospective evaluation in 1820 consecutive patients using the 2011 revised appropriate use criteria for echocardiography.  Am J Cardiol 2012;109:1814-1817.
50. Weiss RJ, Ahmad M, Villanueva F, Bhat G, Main ML.  CaRES (contrast echocardiography registry for safety surveillance); a prospective multicenter study to evaluate the safety of the ultrasound contrast agent Definity in clinical practice.  J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2012;25:790-795.
51. Vaidya OU, House J, Coggins TR, Patil H, Vaidya A, Awad A, Main ML.  Long term left ventricular mass regression in patients with chronic kidney disease following renal transplantation.  Am J Cardiol 2012; 110:254-257.
52. Patil HR, Astik G, O’keefe JH, Main ML. Prevalence of grade II and III obesity among patients hospitalized with cardiovascular diagnoses in 2002 v. 2009.  Mo Med 2012;109:397-401.
53. Khalid A, Al-Ammodi M, Bhatti S, House JA, Khumri TM, O’Keefe JH, Main ML. 
Clinical factors associated with left ventricular ejection fraction disparity in patients 
with left ventricular dysfunction undergoing multimodality imaging. 
Mo Med 2012, in press.
54. Main ML, Grayburn PA, Lang RM, Goldman JH, Gibson CM, Sherwin P, DeMaria AN.  Effect of optison on pulmonary artery systolic pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance.  J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2012, under review.
1. Main ML, Goldman JH, Grayburn PA.  Thinking outside the box—the ultrasound contrast controversy. J Am Coll Cardiol  2007;50:2434-7.
2. Main ML.  Ultrasound contrast agent safety: from anecdote to evidence. J Am Coll Cardiol Img 2009;2:1057-9. 
3. Main ML.  Contrast echocardiography: safety in numbers.  Cardiology 2012;122:248-250.
Letters to the Editor
1. Main ML, Goldman JH, Grayburn PA.  Reply. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008;51:1911. 
2. Main ML, Rao SC, O’keefe JH Jr.  Trends in obesity and extreme obesity among US adults. JAMA 2010;303;1695.
3. Magalski A, McCoy M, Main ML.  The reply.  Am J Med 2012;125:e13.
Review Articles
1. Thomas JD and Main ML.  The digital echocardiographic laboratory: where do we stand?  J Am Soc Echo 1998; 11:978-983. 
2. Main ML and Thomas JD.  Digital echocardiography. Current Opinion in Cardiology 1998; 3:404-408.
3. Main ML and Grayburn PA. Clinical applications of transpulmonary contrast echocardiography.  Am Heart J 1999; 137:144-153.
4. Main ML and Klein AL. Cardioversion in atrial fibrillation: indications, thromboembolic prophylaxis, and role of transesophageal echocardiography.  Thrombosis and Thrombolysis 1999; 7:53-59.
5. Khumri TM, Main ML.  Safety and risk benefit of microbubble contrast agents in echocardiography.  US Radiology 2008;1:22-24.
6. Main ML, Goldman JH, Grayburn PA.  Ultrasound contrast agents: balancing safety versus efficacy.  Expert Opin Drug Saf 2009;8:49-56.
7. Khumri TM, Main ML.  Safety and risk-benefit profile of microbubble contrast agents in echocardiography.  US Cardiology 2009;1:16-19.
8. Liebson P, Feinstein S, Main M.  Expert roundtable:  contrast echocardiography and carotid vascular ultrasound.  Med Roundtable Cardiovasc Ed 2011;2:15-21. 
9. Main ML.  The history of product label changes for DEFIN ITY in the United States.  US Cardiology 2012;9:35-39.
10. Boolani H, Main ML. Update on contrast echocardiography: safety and utility.  Curr Cardiovasc Imaging Rep 2012:5;410-419.
Book Chapter
1. Naseem RH, Main ML, and Rutherford JD.  Chronic ischemic heart disease. In: Rutherford JD, ed.  Cardiology Core Curriculum: A problem-based approach.  London: BMJ Publishing Group, 2003:205-234.

On Staff At

  • Anderson County Hospital
  • Hedrick Medical Center
  • Saint Luke's Cushing Hospital
  • Saint Luke's East Hospital
  • Saint Luke's Hospital of Kansas City
  • Saint Luke's North Hospital–Barry Road
  • Saint Luke's North Hospital–Smithville
  • Saint Luke's South Hospital
  • Wright Memorial Hospital