An esophageal ulcer is an open sore in the lining of the esophagus. The esophagus is the tube that carries food and liquid from your mouth to your stomach. This sheet tells you more about esophageal ulcers and how they are treated.
Causes of an esophageal ulcer
Esophageal ulcers can be caused by:
GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease). This condition occurs when stomach acid flows back into the esophagus. It is the most common cause of esophageal ulcers.
Infection of the esophagus. This is caused by certain types of fungus and bacteria. It's also caused by viruses such as herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) or cytomegalovirus (CMV).
Irritants that damage the esophagus. These include cigarette smoke, alcohol, lye, and certain medications.
Certain types of treatments done on the esophagus. These include chemotherapy and radiation.
Symptoms of an esophageal ulcer
Esophageal ulcer symptoms can include:
Pain when you swallow or trouble swallowing
Pain behind your breastbone (heartburn)
Upset stomach (nausea) and vomiting
Diagnosing an esophageal ulcer
Your provider will ask about your symptoms and health history. He or she will also give you a full exam. Tests will be done as well. These can include:
Upper endoscopy. This is done to see inside your esophagus. This lets your provider check for ulcers. During the test, an endoscope (scope) is used. This is a thin, flexible tube with a tiny camera and light on the end. The scope is placed into your mouth. It is then guided down the esophagus. Small brushes may be passed through the scope to loosen cells from the lining of the esophagus. Other tools may also be passed through the scope to remove tiny tissue samples (biopsy). These samples are then sent to a lab for study.
Barium swallow. This is done to take X-rays of your esophagus. This helps your provider check for ulcers. For this test, you’ll drink a chalky liquid that contains a substance called barium. The barium coats your esophagus so that it will show up clearly on X-rays.
Blood tests. These check for infection, such as HSV-1 and CMV in the esophagus. For a blood test, a small sample of your blood is taken and sent to a lab.
Treating an esophageal ulcer
Treatment focuses on giving the ulcer time to heal, easing symptoms, and preventing further damage. Treatment may include:
Medicines to reduce the amount of acid your stomach makes
Medicines to treat infection
Quitting smoking and not drinking alcohol
Avoiding irritating medicines (such as aspirin, ibuprofen, potassium, tetracyclines, quinidine, iron, and alendronate)
Recovery and follow-up
With treatment, an esophageal ulcer takes several weeks or longer to heal. A follow-up endoscopy may be done to check the ulcer’s healing. Let your provider know if your symptoms don't get better or if they come back again. If you have GERD, work with your provider to manage it. You can take steps to help keep your esophagus healthy and prevent future problems.
When to call your healthcare provider
Call your provider right away if you have any of the following:
Fever of 100.4°F (38.0°C) or higher, or as advised by your healthcare provider
Continued pain or trouble swallowing
Coughing up blood
Frequent nausea or vomiting that looks like bloody coffee grounds
Dark, tarry, or bloody stools